The chin and the cheek are the only two sites out of the twelve that are not related to any hormonal change. The only exception is when the subject has Cushing’s disease, in which case the problem is related to the hormone cortisol.
They are the early detection system for fat loss. This is because they are typically the first sites to change when a new client begins to lose fat.
Androgens are steroid hormones produced in the testes, ovaries, and the adrenals.
The primary androgens, testosterone and androstenedione, are present in high levels in men. They are responsible for male physical traits and reproductive activity.
In women, androgens are produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat cells. Androgens are necessary for estrogen synthesis, and play a key role in the prevention of bone loss. They also regulate body function before, during and after menopause.
The skin fold value for the triceps tells you how much testosterone you are currently producing. The pectoral fold, when read in relation to the triceps, gives information as to whether or not you convert your testosterone to estrogen, an undesirable metabolic process known as aromatization. Environmental estrogens, pollutions, and television all cause testosterone levels to go down (and thus pectoral and tricep folds to go up) by increasing aromatization.
The islet cells of the pancreas, an organ that sits behind the stomach, produce insulin. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to elevated blood sugar levels from ingestion of carbohydrates (sugars). Insulin, with the help of receptor cells in the body, absorbs sugar from the blood stream into the inside of the cell. The sub-scapular and the supra-iliac measurements give you information about the subject’s insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity levels.
Located on the upper back near the shoulder blades, the sub-scapular site is the genetic marker for carbohydrate intolerance. It is most closely linked to heart disease, and is a reflection of the subject’s ability to manage sugar.
The supra iliac, or love handle site, reflects the amount of insulin that the subject produces, as well as their sensitivity to it. It is closely related to environmental carbohydrates, or those carbohydrates taken in through the diet.
The thyroid gland, located in the neck below the Adams apple, is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. The function of the thyroid is to secrete hormones (T3 and T4), which control metabolic pathways and thereby control various physiological functions. It regulates the rate of energy production and conversion of energy from food into muscular energy and body heat.
The mid-axillary site is located midway between the crest of the ilium and the “hole” created by the armpit. Its’ value tells you whether the thyroid is functioning normally. Lower skin fold values of the mid-axillary site indicate better thyroid function. If the skin fold value is high at this site, the subject should be screened for heavy metals or plastics.
Cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, is often referred to as the “stress hormone” because it is involved in the response to stress. It increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels and has an immunosuppressive action. It acts as a weak form of adrenaline in stressful, yet non-life threatening situations, and is responsible for waking you up in the morning.
The cortisol site, known as the umbilicus, has the most scientific research behind it at the present time. The skin fold value of the umbilicus is a reflection of long-term cortisol output. It is a marker both for how much cortisol is produced in relation to stress, as well as how well the individual deals with their stress.
This site is typically high, even when the other sites are low, because of the enormous amounts of stress that we confront in today’s society without proper outlets for it’s release. Simply put: in the old days, while it was true that the stresses were frequently more immediately life-threatening – 10,000 B.C.’s saber tooth tiger comes to mind – they were frequently short lived: you either got torn limb from and limb and eaten, or you prevailed and got a great shawl out of the bargain.
Our stresses today are more low level, but no less life-threatening, because of their constancy – bosses, landlords, honking horns, loud neighbors, and – these days – heavy falling objects – all contribute to produce a low level (most of the time) yet consistent stress level that never lets up. Cortisol by itself is actually a very useful hormone; the problem is that it is chronically high in most individuals in today’s society.
Growth hormone is a hormone that is synthesized and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a major role in controlling physiologic processes such as growth and metabolism. GH stimulates the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-I (Insulin-like growth factor 1). By stimulating the proliferation of cartilage cells, IGF-I plays an important role in both bone and muscle growth.
The skin fold values for the knee and calf sites give you an indication of growth hormone levels. While the knee is indicative of short-term growth hormone levels, the calf gives information about longer-term GH levels. These two sites reveal a great deal of information about sleep quality, duration, and late night partying, because growth hormone production is dependent upon sleep.
Estrogens, produced from androgens through enzymatic actions, are the primary female sex hormones. The three major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estradiol, estriol, and estrone.
The values for the quadriceps and hamstrings sites are indicative of your ability to manage estrogen levels. As they are related to overall estrogen level, as well as ratio, females get more latitude in this area then males. For men, the quadriceps and hamstrings should approach the same value as the triceps, which indicates lower estrogen values.
The next page details what type of body fat loss you should expect from biosignature modulation.
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